Object-Oriented Meets Functional

Have the best of both worlds. Construct elegant class hierarchies for maximum code reuse and extensibility, implement their behavior using higher-order functions. Or anything in-between.

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Scala began life in 2003, created by Martin Odersky and his research group at EPFL, next to Lake Geneva and the Alps, in Lausanne, Switzerland. Scala has since grown into a mature open source programming language, used by hundreds of thousands of developers, and is developed and maintained by scores of people all over the world.
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Scala in a Nutshell

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Seamless Java Interop

Scala runs on the JVM, so Java and Scala stacks can be freely mixed for totally seamless integration.

Type Inference

So the type system doesn’t feel so static. Don’t work for the type system. Let the type system work for you!

& Distribution

Use data-parallel operations on collections, use actors for concurrency and distribution, or futures for asynchronous programming.


Combine the flexibility of Java-style interfaces with the power of classes. Think principled multiple-inheritance.

Pattern Matching

Think “switch” on steroids. Match against class hierarchies, sequences, and more.

Higher-Order Functions

Functions are first-class objects. Compose them with guaranteed type safety. Use them anywhere, pass them to anything.

class Author(val firstName: String,
    val lastName: String) extends Comparable[Author] {

  override def compareTo(that: Author) = {
    val lastNameComp = this.lastName compareTo that.lastName
    if (lastNameComp != 0) lastNameComp
    else this.firstName compareTo that.firstName

object Author {
  def loadAuthorsFromFile(file: java.io.File): List[Author] = ???
import static scala.collection.JavaConversions.asJavaCollection;

public class App {
    public List<Author> loadAuthorsFromFile(File file) {
        return new ArrayList<Author>(asJavaCollection(

    public void sortAuthors(List<Author> authors) {

    public void displaySortedAuthors(File file) {
        List<Author> authors = loadAuthorsFromFile(file);
        for (Author author : authors) {
                author.lastName() + ", " + author.firstName());

Combine Scala and Java seamlessly

Scala classes are ultimately JVM classes. You can create Java objects, call their methods and inherit from Java classes transparently from Scala. Similarly, Java code can reference Scala classes and objects.

In this example, the Scala class Author implements the Java interface Comparable<T> and works with Java Files. The Java code uses a method from the companion object Author, and accesses fields of the Author class. It also uses JavaConversions to convert between Scala collections and Java collections.

Type inference
scala> class Person(val name: String, val age: Int) {
     |   override def toString = s"$name ($age)"
     | }
defined class Person

scala> def underagePeopleNames(persons: List[Person]) = {
     |   for (person <- persons; if person.age < 18)
     |     yield person.name
     | }
underagePeopleNames: (persons: List[Person])List[String]

scala> def createRandomPeople() = {
     |   val names = List("Alice", "Bob", "Carol",
     |       "Dave", "Eve", "Frank")
     |   for (name <- names) yield {
     |     val age = (Random.nextGaussian()*8 + 20).toInt
     |     new Person(name, age)
     |   }
     | }
createRandomPeople: ()List[Person]

scala> val people = createRandomPeople()
people: List[Person] = List(Alice (16), Bob (16), Carol (19), Dave (18), Eve (26), Frank (11))

scala> underagePeopleNames(people)
res1: List[String] = List(Alice, Bob, Frank)

Let the compiler figure out the types for you

The Scala compiler is smart about static types. Most of the time, you need not tell it the types of your variables. Instead, its powerful type inference will figure them out for you.

In this interactive REPL session (Read-Eval-Print-Loop), we define a class and two functions. You can observe that the compiler infers the result types of the functions automatically, as well as all the intermediate values.

val x = future { someExpensiveComputation() }
val y = future { someOtherExpensiveComputation() }
val z = for (a <- x; b <- y) yield a*b
for (c <- z) println("Result: " + c)
println("Meanwhile, the main thread goes on!")

Go Concurrent or Distributed with Futures & Promises

In Scala, futures and promises can be used to process data asynchronously, making it easier to parallelize or even distribute your application.

In this example, the future{} construct evaluates its argument asynchronously, and returns a handle to the asynchronous result as a Future[Int]. For-comprehensions can be used to register new callbacks (to post new things to do) when the future is completed, i.e., when the computation is finished. And since all this is executed asynchronously, without blocking, the main program thread can continue doing other work in the meantime.

abstract class Spacecraft {
  def engage(): Unit
trait CommandoBridge extends Spacecraft {
  def engage(): Unit = {
    for (_ <- 1 to 3)
  def speedUp(): Unit
trait PulseEngine extends Spacecraft {
  val maxPulse: Int
  var currentPulse: Int = 0
  def speedUp(): Unit = {
    if (currentPulse < maxPulse)
      currentPulse += 1
class StarCruiser extends Spacecraft
                     with CommandoBridge
                     with PulseEngine {
  val maxPulse = 200

Flexibly Combine Interface & Behavior

In Scala, multiple traits can be mixed into a class to combine their interface and their behavior.

Here, a StarCruiser is a Spacecraft with a CommandoBridge that knows how to engage the ship (provided a means to speed up) and a PulseEngine that specifies how to speed up.

Pattern matching
// Define a set of case classes for representing binary trees.
sealed abstract class Tree
case class Node(elem: Int, left: Tree, right: Tree) extends Tree
case object Leaf extends Tree

// Return the in-order traversal sequence of a given tree.
def inOrder(t: Tree): List[Int] = t match {
  case Node(e, l, r) => inOrder(l) ::: List(e) ::: inOrder(r)
  case Leaf          => List()

Switch on the structure of your data

In Scala, case classes are used to represent structural data types. They implicitly equip the class with meaningful toString, equals and hashCode methods, as well as the ability to be deconstructed with pattern matching.

In this example, we define a small set of case classes that represent binary trees of integers (the generic version is omitted for simplicity here). In inOrder, the match construct chooses the right branch, depending on the type of t, and at the same time deconstructs the arguments of a Node.

Go Functional with Higher-Order Functions

In Scala, functions are values, and can be defined as anonymous functions with a concise syntax.

val people: Array[Person]

// Partition `people` into two arrays `minors` and `adults`.
// Use the higher-order function `(_.age < 18)` as a predicate for partitioning.
val (minors, adults) = people partition (_.age < 18)
List<Person> people;

List<Person> minors = new ArrayList<Person>(people.size());
List<Person> adults = new ArrayList<Person>(people.size());
for (Person person : people) {
    if (person.getAge() < 18)

In the Scala example on the left, the partition method, available on all collection types (including Array), returns two new collections of the same type. Elements from the original collection are partitioned according to a predicate, which is given as a lambda, i.e., an anonymous function. The _ stands for the parameter to the lambda, i.e., the element that is being tested. This particular lambda can also be written as (x => x.age < 18).

The same program is implemented in Java on the right.

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What's New

date icon Monday, December 05, 2016

We are pleased to announce the availability of Scala 2.12.1!


Significant changes since 2.12.0 include:

  • #5516 Improved runtime speed for Vector, restoring previous performance
  • #5509 SI-10032 Fix code gen with returns in nested try-finally blocks
  • #5482 Fix 2.12 regression, backend crash: Cannot create ClassBType from non-class symbol; also fix SI-7139
  • #5469 SI-10020 SI-10027 Scaladoc: keep Java comment scanning stack-friendly
  • #5376 Make -Xexperimental features available separately
  • #5284 SI-7046 partial fix to knownDirectSubclasses for reflection users and macro authors
  • #5410 Upgrade to scala-xml 1.0.6

In total, this release resolves 28 issues. We merged 88 pull requests.

As usual for minor releases, Scala 2.12.1 is binary compatible with the whole Scala 2.12 series.


A big thank you to everyone who’s helped improve Scala by reporting bugs, improving our documentation, spreading kindness in discussions around Scala, and submitting and reviewing pull requests! You are all magnificent.

According to git shortlog -sn --no-merges v2.12.0..v2.12.1, 28 people contributed to this minor release: A. P. Marki, Jason Zaugg, Lukas Rytz, Seth Tisue, Adriaan Moors, Stefan Zeiger, Dale Wijnand, Miles Sabin, Daniel Barclay, Pap Lőrinc, Iulian Dragos, Rex Kerr, Sakthipriyan Vairamani, Kenji Yoshida, Jakob Odersky, Mohit Agarwal, Paul Kernfeld, Pavel Petlinsky, Boris Korogvich, Sébastien Doeraene, Tim Spence, Viktor Klang, Vladimir Glushak, Chris Okasaki, Lifu Huang, Janek Bogucki, Martijn Hoekstra, Masaru Nomura.

Scala 2.12 Notes

The release notes for Scala 2.12.0 have important information applicable to the whole 2.12 series.

Obtaining Scala

Scala releases are available through a variety of channels, including (but not limited to):


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