# Annotations

## Definition

Annotations associate meta-information with definitions. A simple annotation has the form @´c´ or @´c(a_1 , \ldots , a_n)´. Here, ´c´ is a constructor of a class ´C´, which must conform to the class scala.Annotation.

Annotations may apply to definitions or declarations, types, or expressions. An annotation of a definition or declaration appears in front of that definition. An annotation of a type appears after that type. An annotation of an expression ´e´ appears after the expression ´e´, separated by a colon. More than one annotation clause may apply to an entity. The order in which these annotations are given does not matter.

Examples:

## Predefined Annotations

### Java Platform Annotations

The meaning of annotation clauses is implementation-dependent. On the Java platform, the following annotations have a standard meaning.

• @transient Marks a field to be non-persistent; this is equivalent to the transient modifier in Java.

• @volatile Marks a field which can change its value outside the control of the program; this is equivalent to the volatile modifier in Java.

• @SerialVersionUID(<longlit>) Attaches a serial version identifier (a long constant) to a class. This is equivalent to the following field definition in Java:

• @throws(<classlit>) A Java compiler checks that a program contains handlers for checked exceptions by analyzing which checked exceptions can result from the execution of a method or constructor. For each checked exception which is a possible result, the throws clause for the method or constructor must mention the class of that exception or one of the superclasses of the class of that exception.

### Java Beans Annotations

• @scala.beans.BeanProperty When prefixed to a definition of some variable X, this annotation causes getter and setter methods getX, setX in the Java bean style to be added in the class containing the variable. The first letter of the variable appears capitalized after the get or set. When the annotation is added to the definition of an immutable value definition X, only a getter is generated. The construction of these methods is part of code-generation; therefore, these methods become visible only once a classfile for the containing class is generated.

• @scala.beans.BooleanBeanProperty This annotation is equivalent to scala.reflect.BeanProperty, but the generated getter method is named isX instead of getX.

### Deprecation Annotations

• @deprecated(message: <stringlit>, since: <stringlit>)
Marks a definition as deprecated. Accesses to the defined entity will then cause a deprecated warning mentioning the message <stringlit> to be issued from the compiler. The argument since documents since when the definition should be considered deprecated.
Deprecated warnings are suppressed in code that belongs itself to a definition that is labeled deprecated.

• @deprecatedName(name: <stringlit>, since: <stringlit>)
Marks a formal parameter name as deprecated. Invocations of this entity using named parameter syntax referring to the deprecated parameter name cause a deprecation warning.

### Scala Compiler Annotations

• @unchecked When applied to the selector of a match expression, this attribute suppresses any warnings about non-exhaustive pattern matches that would otherwise be emitted. For instance, no warnings would be produced for the method definition below.

Without the @unchecked annotation, a Scala compiler could infer that the pattern match is non-exhaustive, and could produce a warning because Option is a sealed class.

• @uncheckedStable When applied a value declaration or definition, it allows the defined value to appear in a path, even if its type is volatile. For instance, the following member definitions are legal:

Without the @uncheckedStable annotation, the designator x would not be a path since its type A with B is volatile. Hence, the reference x.T would be malformed.

When applied to value declarations or definitions that have non-volatile types, the annotation has no effect.

• @specialized When applied to the definition of a type parameter, this annotation causes the compiler to generate specialized definitions for primitive types. An optional list of primitive types may be given, in which case specialization takes into account only those types. For instance, the following code would generate specialized traits for Unit, Int and Double

Whenever the static type of an expression matches a specialized variant of a definition, the compiler will instead use the specialized version. See the specialization sid for more details of the implementation.

## User-defined Annotations

Other annotations may be interpreted by platform- or application-dependent tools. The class scala.annotation.Annotation is the base class for user-defined annotations. It has two sub-traits:

• scala.annotation.StaticAnnotation: Instances of a subclass of this trait will be stored in the generated class files, and therefore accessible to runtime reflection and later compilation runs.
• scala.annotation.ConstantAnnotation: Instances of a subclass of this trait may only have arguments which are constant expressions, and are also stored in the generated class files.
• If an annotation class inherits from neither scala.ConstantAnnotation nor scala.StaticAnnotation, its instances are visible only locally during the compilation run that analyzes them.

## Host-platform Annotations

The host platform may define its own annotation format. These annotations do not extend any of the classes in the scala.annotation package, but can generally be used in the same way as Scala annotations. The host platform may impose additional restrictions on the expressions which are valid as annotation arguments.