Packages

  • package root

    This is the documentation for the Scala standard library.

    This is the documentation for the Scala standard library.

    Package structure

    The scala package contains core types like Int, Float, Array or Option which are accessible in all Scala compilation units without explicit qualification or imports.

    Notable packages include:

    Other packages exist. See the complete list on the right.

    Additional parts of the standard library are shipped as separate libraries. These include:

    • scala.reflect - Scala's reflection API (scala-reflect.jar)
    • scala.xml - XML parsing, manipulation, and serialization (scala-xml.jar)
    • scala.swing - A convenient wrapper around Java's GUI framework called Swing (scala-swing.jar)
    • scala.util.parsing - Parser combinators (scala-parser-combinators.jar)

    Automatic imports

    Identifiers in the scala package and the scala.Predef object are always in scope by default.

    Some of these identifiers are type aliases provided as shortcuts to commonly used classes. For example, List is an alias for scala.collection.immutable.List.

    Other aliases refer to classes provided by the underlying platform. For example, on the JVM, String is an alias for java.lang.String.

    Definition Classes
    root
  • package scala

    Core Scala types.

    Core Scala types. They are always available without an explicit import.

    Definition Classes
    root
  • package annotation
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package beans
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package collection

    Contains the base traits and objects needed to use and extend Scala's collection library.

    Contains the base traits and objects needed to use and extend Scala's collection library.

    Guide

    A detailed guide for using the collections library is available at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/collections/introduction.html. Developers looking to extend the collections library can find a description of its architecture at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/core/architecture-of-scala-collections.html.

    Using Collections

    It is convenient to treat all collections as either a scala.collection.Traversable or scala.collection.Iterable, as these traits define the vast majority of operations on a collection.

    Collections can, of course, be treated as specifically as needed, and the library is designed to ensure that the methods that transform collections will return a collection of the same type:

    scala> val array = Array(1,2,3,4,5,6)
    array: Array[Int] = Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
    
    scala> array map { _.toString }
    res0: Array[String] = Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
    
    scala> val list = List(1,2,3,4,5,6)
    list: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
    
    scala> list map { _.toString }
    res1: List[String] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

    Creating Collections

    The most common way to create a collection is to use its companion object as a factory. The three most commonly used collections are scala.collection.Seq, scala.collection.immutable.Set, and scala.collection.immutable.Map. They can be used directly as shown below since their companion objects are all available as type aliases in either the scala package or in scala.Predef. New collections are created like this:

    scala> val seq = Seq(1,2,3,4,1)
    seq: Seq[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 1)
    
    scala> val set = Set(1,2,3,4,1)
    set: scala.collection.immutable.Set[Int] = Set(1, 2, 3, 4)
    
    scala> val map = Map(1 -> "one", 2 -> "two", 3 -> "three", 2 -> "too")
    map: scala.collection.immutable.Map[Int,String] = Map(1 -> one, 2 -> too, 3 -> three)

    It is also typical to prefer the scala.collection.immutable collections over those in scala.collection.mutable; the types aliased in the scala.Predef object are the immutable versions.

    Also note that the collections library was carefully designed to include several implementations of each of the three basic collection types. These implementations have specific performance characteristics which are described in the guide.

    The concrete parallel collections also have specific performance characteristics which are described in the parallel collections guide

    Converting to and from Java Collections

    The scala.collection.JavaConverters object provides a collection of decorators that allow converting between Scala and Java collections using asScala and asJava methods.

    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package compat
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package concurrent

    This package object contains primitives for concurrent and parallel programming.

    This package object contains primitives for concurrent and parallel programming.

    Guide

    A more detailed guide to Futures and Promises, including discussion and examples can be found at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/core/futures.html.

    Common Imports

    When working with Futures, you will often find that importing the whole concurrent package is convenient, furthermore you are likely to need an implicit ExecutionContext in scope for many operations involving Futures and Promises:

    import scala.concurrent._
    import ExecutionContext.Implicits.global

    Specifying Durations

    Operations often require a duration to be specified. A duration DSL is available to make defining these easier:

    import scala.concurrent.duration._
    val d: Duration = 10.seconds

    Using Futures For Non-blocking Computation

    Basic use of futures is easy with the factory method on Future, which executes a provided function asynchronously, handing you back a future result of that function without blocking the current thread. In order to create the Future you will need either an implicit or explicit ExecutionContext to be provided:

    import scala.concurrent._
    import ExecutionContext.Implicits.global  // implicit execution context
    
    val firstZebra: Future[Int] = Future {
      val source = scala.io.Source.fromFile("/etc/dictionaries-common/words")
      source.toSeq.indexOfSlice("zebra")
    }

    Avoid Blocking

    Although blocking is possible in order to await results (with a mandatory timeout duration):

    import scala.concurrent.duration._
    Await.result(firstZebra, 10.seconds)

    and although this is sometimes necessary to do, in particular for testing purposes, blocking in general is discouraged when working with Futures and concurrency in order to avoid potential deadlocks and improve performance. Instead, use callbacks or combinators to remain in the future domain:

    val animalRange: Future[Int] = for {
      aardvark <- firstAardvark
      zebra <- firstZebra
    } yield zebra - aardvark
    
    animalRange.onSuccess {
      case x if x > 500000 => println("It's a long way from Aardvark to Zebra")
    }
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package io
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package math

    The package object scala.math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as elementary exponential, logarithmic, root and trigonometric functions.

    The package object scala.math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as elementary exponential, logarithmic, root and trigonometric functions.

    All methods forward to java.lang.Math unless otherwise noted.

    Definition Classes
    scala
    See also

    java.lang.Math

  • package ref
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package reflect
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package runtime
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package sys

    The package object scala.sys contains methods for reading and altering core aspects of the virtual machine as well as the world outside of it.

    The package object scala.sys contains methods for reading and altering core aspects of the virtual machine as well as the world outside of it.

    Definition Classes
    scala
    Version

    2.9

    Since

    2.9

  • package process

    This package handles the execution of external processes.

    This package handles the execution of external processes. The contents of this package can be divided in three groups, according to their responsibilities:

    • Indicating what to run and how to run it.
    • Handling a process input and output.
    • Running the process.

    For simple uses, the only group that matters is the first one. Running an external command can be as simple as "ls".!, or as complex as building a pipeline of commands such as this:

    import scala.sys.process._
    "ls" #| "grep .scala" #&& Seq("sh", "-c", "scalac *.scala") #|| "echo nothing found" lineStream

    We describe below the general concepts and architecture of the package, and then take a closer look at each of the categories mentioned above.

    Concepts and Architecture

    The underlying basis for the whole package is Java's Process and ProcessBuilder classes. While there's no need to use these Java classes, they impose boundaries on what is possible. One cannot, for instance, retrieve a process id for whatever is executing.

    When executing an external process, one can provide a command's name, arguments to it, the directory in which it will be executed and what environment variables will be set. For each executing process, one can feed its standard input through a java.io.OutputStream, and read from its standard output and standard error through a pair of java.io.InputStream. One can wait until a process finishes execution and then retrieve its return value, or one can kill an executing process. Everything else must be built on those features.

    This package provides a DSL for running and chaining such processes, mimicking Unix shells ability to pipe output from one process to the input of another, or control the execution of further processes based on the return status of the previous one.

    In addition to this DSL, this package also provides a few ways of controlling input and output of these processes, going from simple and easy to use to complex and flexible.

    When processes are composed, a new ProcessBuilder is created which, when run, will execute the ProcessBuilder instances it is composed of according to the manner of the composition. If piping one process to another, they'll be executed simultaneously, and each will be passed a ProcessIO that will copy the output of one to the input of the other.

    What to Run and How

    The central component of the process execution DSL is the scala.sys.process.ProcessBuilder trait. It is ProcessBuilder that implements the process execution DSL, that creates the scala.sys.process.Process that will handle the execution, and return the results of such execution to the caller. We can see that DSL in the introductory example: #|, #&& and #!! are methods on ProcessBuilder used to create a new ProcessBuilder through composition.

    One creates a ProcessBuilder either through factories on the scala.sys.process.Process's companion object, or through implicit conversions available in this package object itself. Implicitly, each process is created either out of a String, with arguments separated by spaces -- no escaping of spaces is possible -- or out of a scala.collection.Seq, where the first element represents the command name, and the remaining elements are arguments to it. In this latter case, arguments may contain spaces.

    To further control what how the process will be run, such as specifying the directory in which it will be run, see the factories on scala.sys.process.Process's object companion.

    Once the desired ProcessBuilder is available, it can be executed in different ways, depending on how one desires to control its I/O, and what kind of result one wishes for:

    • Return status of the process (! methods)
    • Output of the process as a String (!! methods)
    • Continuous output of the process as a Stream[String] (lineStream methods)
    • The Process representing it (run methods)

    Some simple examples of these methods:

    import scala.sys.process._
    
    // This uses ! to get the exit code
    def fileExists(name: String) = Seq("test", "-f", name).! == 0
    
    // This uses !! to get the whole result as a string
    val dirContents = "ls".!!
    
    // This "fire-and-forgets" the method, which can be lazily read through
    // a Stream[String]
    def sourceFilesAt(baseDir: String): Stream[String] = {
      val cmd = Seq("find", baseDir, "-name", "*.scala", "-type", "f")
      cmd.lineStream
    }

    We'll see more details about controlling I/O of the process in the next section.

    Handling Input and Output

    In the underlying Java model, once a Process has been started, one can get java.io.InputStream and java.io.OutputStream representing its output and input respectively. That is, what one writes to an OutputStream is turned into input to the process, and the output of a process can be read from an InputStream -- of which there are two, one representing normal output, and the other representing error output.

    This model creates a difficulty, which is that the code responsible for actually running the external processes is the one that has to take decisions about how to handle its I/O.

    This package presents an alternative model: the I/O of a running process is controlled by a scala.sys.process.ProcessIO object, which can be passed _to_ the code that runs the external process. A ProcessIO will have direct access to the java streams associated with the process I/O. It must, however, close these streams afterwards.

    Simpler abstractions are available, however. The components of this package that handle I/O are:

    Some examples of I/O handling:

    import scala.sys.process._
    
    // An overly complex way of computing size of a compressed file
    def gzFileSize(name: String) = {
      val cat = Seq("zcat", name)
      var count = 0
      def byteCounter(input: java.io.InputStream) = {
        while(input.read() != -1) count += 1
        input.close()
      }
      val p = cat run new ProcessIO(_.close(), byteCounter, _.close())
      p.exitValue()
      count
    }
    
    // This "fire-and-forgets" the method, which can be lazily read through
    // a Stream[String], and accumulates all errors on a StringBuffer
    def sourceFilesAt(baseDir: String): (Stream[String], StringBuffer) = {
      val buffer = new StringBuffer()
      val cmd = Seq("find", baseDir, "-name", "*.scala", "-type", "f")
      val lineStream = cmd lineStream_! ProcessLogger(buffer append _)
      (lineStream, buffer)
    }

    Instances of the java classes java.io.File and java.net.URL can both be used directly as input to other processes, and java.io.File can be used as output as well. One can even pipe one to the other directly without any intervening process, though that's not a design goal or recommended usage. For example, the following code will copy a web page to a file:

    import java.io.File
    import java.net.URL
    import scala.sys.process._
    new URL("http://www.scala-lang.org/") #> new File("scala-lang.html") !

    More information about the other ways of controlling I/O can be found in the Scaladoc for the associated objects, traits and classes.

    Running the Process

    Paradoxically, this is the simplest component of all, and the one least likely to be interacted with. It consists solely of scala.sys.process.Process, and it provides only two methods:

    • exitValue(): blocks until the process exit, and then returns the exit value. This is what happens when one uses the ! method of ProcessBuilder.
    • destroy(): this will kill the external process and close the streams associated with it.
  • BooleanProp
  • Prop
  • ShutdownHookThread
  • SystemProperties
  • package text
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package util
    Definition Classes
    scala
p

scala

sys

package sys

The package object scala.sys contains methods for reading and altering core aspects of the virtual machine as well as the world outside of it.

Source
package.scala
Version

2.9

Since

2.9

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Type Members

  1. trait BooleanProp extends Prop[Boolean]

    A few additional conveniences for Boolean properties.

  2. trait Prop [+T] extends AnyRef

    A lightweight interface wrapping a property contained in some unspecified map.

    A lightweight interface wrapping a property contained in some unspecified map. Generally it'll be the system properties but this is not a requirement.

    See scala.sys.SystemProperties for an example usage.

    Version

    2.9

    Since

    2.9

  3. class ShutdownHookThread extends Thread

    A minimal Thread wrapper to enhance shutdown hooks.

    A minimal Thread wrapper to enhance shutdown hooks. It knows how to unregister itself.

    Version

    2.9

    Since

    2.9

  4. class SystemProperties extends AbstractMap[String, String] with Map[String, String]

    A bidirectional map wrapping the java System properties.

    A bidirectional map wrapping the java System properties. Changes to System properties will be immediately visible in the map, and modifications made to the map will be immediately applied to the System properties. If a security manager is in place which prevents the properties from being read or written, the AccessControlException will be caught and discarded.

Value Members

  1. def addShutdownHook(body: ⇒ Unit): ShutdownHookThread

    Register a shutdown hook to be run when the VM exits.

    Register a shutdown hook to be run when the VM exits. The hook is automatically registered: the returned value can be ignored, but is available in case the Thread requires further modification. It can also be unregistered by calling ShutdownHookThread#remove().

    Note that shutdown hooks are NOT guaranteed to be run.

    body

    the body of code to run at shutdown

    returns

    the Thread which will run the shutdown hook.

    See also

    scala.sys.ShutdownHookThread

  2. def allThreads(): IndexedSeq[Thread]

    Returns all active thread in the current thread's thread group and subgroups.

    Returns all active thread in the current thread's thread group and subgroups.

    returns

    an IndexedSeq containing the threads.

  3. def env: Map[String, String]

    An immutable Map representing the current system environment.

    An immutable Map representing the current system environment.

    returns

    a Map containing the system environment variables.

  4. def error(message: String): Nothing

    Throw a new RuntimeException with the supplied message.

    Throw a new RuntimeException with the supplied message.

    returns

    Nothing.

  5. def exit(status: Int): Nothing

    Exit the JVM with the given status code.

    Exit the JVM with the given status code.

    returns

    Nothing.

  6. def exit(): Nothing

    Exit the JVM with the default status code.

    Exit the JVM with the default status code.

    returns

    Nothing.

  7. def props: SystemProperties

    A bidirectional, mutable Map representing the current system Properties.

    A bidirectional, mutable Map representing the current system Properties.

    returns

    a SystemProperties.

    See also

    scala.sys.SystemProperties

  8. def runtime: Runtime

    A convenience method to get the current Runtime instance.

    A convenience method to get the current Runtime instance.

    returns

    the result of java.lang.Runtime.getRuntime()

  9. object BooleanProp
  10. object Prop
  11. object ShutdownHookThread
  12. object SystemProperties

    The values in SystemProperties can be used to access and manipulate designated system properties.

    The values in SystemProperties can be used to access and manipulate designated system properties. See scala.sys.Prop for particulars.

    Example:
    1. if (!headless.isSet) headless.enable()

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any

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