Packages

  • package root

    This is the documentation for the Scala standard library.

    This is the documentation for the Scala standard library.

    Package structure

    The scala package contains core types like Int, Float, Array or Option which are accessible in all Scala compilation units without explicit qualification or imports.

    Notable packages include:

    Other packages exist. See the complete list on the right.

    Additional parts of the standard library are shipped as separate libraries. These include:

    • scala.reflect - Scala's reflection API (scala-reflect.jar)
    • scala.xml - XML parsing, manipulation, and serialization (scala-xml.jar)
    • scala.swing - A convenient wrapper around Java's GUI framework called Swing (scala-swing.jar)
    • scala.util.parsing - Parser combinators (scala-parser-combinators.jar)

    Automatic imports

    Identifiers in the scala package and the scala.Predef object are always in scope by default.

    Some of these identifiers are type aliases provided as shortcuts to commonly used classes. For example, List is an alias for scala.collection.immutable.List.

    Other aliases refer to classes provided by the underlying platform. For example, on the JVM, String is an alias for java.lang.String.

    Definition Classes
    root
  • package scala

    Core Scala types.

    Core Scala types. They are always available without an explicit import.

    Definition Classes
    root
  • package annotation
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package beans
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package collection

    Contains the base traits and objects needed to use and extend Scala's collection library.

    Contains the base traits and objects needed to use and extend Scala's collection library.

    Guide

    A detailed guide for using the collections library is available at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/collections/introduction.html. Developers looking to extend the collections library can find a description of its architecture at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/core/architecture-of-scala-collections.html.

    Using Collections

    It is convenient to treat all collections as either a scala.collection.Traversable or scala.collection.Iterable, as these traits define the vast majority of operations on a collection.

    Collections can, of course, be treated as specifically as needed, and the library is designed to ensure that the methods that transform collections will return a collection of the same type:

    scala> val array = Array(1,2,3,4,5,6)
    array: Array[Int] = Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
    
    scala> array map { _.toString }
    res0: Array[String] = Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
    
    scala> val list = List(1,2,3,4,5,6)
    list: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)
    
    scala> list map { _.toString }
    res1: List[String] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

    Creating Collections

    The most common way to create a collection is to use its companion object as a factory. The three most commonly used collections are scala.collection.Seq, scala.collection.immutable.Set, and scala.collection.immutable.Map. They can be used directly as shown below since their companion objects are all available as type aliases in either the scala package or in scala.Predef. New collections are created like this:

    scala> val seq = Seq(1,2,3,4,1)
    seq: Seq[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 1)
    
    scala> val set = Set(1,2,3,4,1)
    set: scala.collection.immutable.Set[Int] = Set(1, 2, 3, 4)
    
    scala> val map = Map(1 -> "one", 2 -> "two", 3 -> "three", 2 -> "too")
    map: scala.collection.immutable.Map[Int,String] = Map(1 -> one, 2 -> too, 3 -> three)

    It is also typical to prefer the scala.collection.immutable collections over those in scala.collection.mutable; the types aliased in the scala.Predef object are the immutable versions.

    Also note that the collections library was carefully designed to include several implementations of each of the three basic collection types. These implementations have specific performance characteristics which are described in the guide.

    The concrete parallel collections also have specific performance characteristics which are described in the parallel collections guide

    Converting to and from Java Collections

    The scala.collection.JavaConverters object provides a collection of decorators that allow converting between Scala and Java collections using asScala and asJava methods.

    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package compat
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package concurrent

    This package object contains primitives for concurrent and parallel programming.

    This package object contains primitives for concurrent and parallel programming.

    Guide

    A more detailed guide to Futures and Promises, including discussion and examples can be found at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/core/futures.html.

    Common Imports

    When working with Futures, you will often find that importing the whole concurrent package is convenient, furthermore you are likely to need an implicit ExecutionContext in scope for many operations involving Futures and Promises:

    import scala.concurrent._
    import ExecutionContext.Implicits.global

    Specifying Durations

    Operations often require a duration to be specified. A duration DSL is available to make defining these easier:

    import scala.concurrent.duration._
    val d: Duration = 10.seconds

    Using Futures For Non-blocking Computation

    Basic use of futures is easy with the factory method on Future, which executes a provided function asynchronously, handing you back a future result of that function without blocking the current thread. In order to create the Future you will need either an implicit or explicit ExecutionContext to be provided:

    import scala.concurrent._
    import ExecutionContext.Implicits.global  // implicit execution context
    
    val firstZebra: Future[Int] = Future {
      val source = scala.io.Source.fromFile("/etc/dictionaries-common/words")
      source.toSeq.indexOfSlice("zebra")
    }

    Avoid Blocking

    Although blocking is possible in order to await results (with a mandatory timeout duration):

    import scala.concurrent.duration._
    Await.result(firstZebra, 10.seconds)

    and although this is sometimes necessary to do, in particular for testing purposes, blocking in general is discouraged when working with Futures and concurrency in order to avoid potential deadlocks and improve performance. Instead, use callbacks or combinators to remain in the future domain:

    val animalRange: Future[Int] = for {
      aardvark <- firstAardvark
      zebra <- firstZebra
    } yield zebra - aardvark
    
    animalRange.onSuccess {
      case x if x > 500000 => println("It's a long way from Aardvark to Zebra")
    }
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package io
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • AnsiColor
  • BufferedSource
  • Codec
  • LowPriorityCodecImplicits
  • Source
  • StdIn
  • package math

    The package object scala.math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as elementary exponential, logarithmic, root and trigonometric functions.

    The package object scala.math contains methods for performing basic numeric operations such as elementary exponential, logarithmic, root and trigonometric functions.

    All methods forward to java.lang.Math unless otherwise noted.

    Definition Classes
    scala
    See also

    java.lang.Math

  • package ref
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package reflect
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package runtime
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package sys

    The package object scala.sys contains methods for reading and altering core aspects of the virtual machine as well as the world outside of it.

    The package object scala.sys contains methods for reading and altering core aspects of the virtual machine as well as the world outside of it.

    Definition Classes
    scala
    Version

    2.9

    Since

    2.9

  • package text
    Definition Classes
    scala
  • package util
    Definition Classes
    scala

package io

Ordering
  1. Alphabetic
Visibility
  1. Public
  2. All

Type Members

  1. trait AnsiColor extends AnyRef

    ANSI escape codes providing control over text formatting and color on supporting text terminals.

    ANSI escape codes providing control over text formatting and color on supporting text terminals.

    ANSI Style and Control Codes

    This group of escape codes provides control over text styling. For example, to turn on reverse video with bold and then turn off all styling embed these codes,

    import io.AnsiColor._
    
    object ColorDemo extends App {
    
      println(s"${REVERSED}${BOLD}Hello 1979!${RESET}")
    }

    Foreground and Background Colors

    Embedding ANSI color codes in text output will control the text foreground and background colors.

    ForegroundBackground
    BLACK BLACK_B
    RED RED_B
    GREEN GREEN_B
    YELLOW YELLOW_B
    BLUE BLUE_B
    MAGENTAMAGENTA_B
    CYAN CYAN_B
    WHITE WHITE_B

  2. class BufferedSource extends Source

    This object provides convenience methods to create an iterable representation of a source file.

  3. class Codec extends AnyRef

    A class for character encoding/decoding preferences.

  4. trait LowPriorityCodecImplicits extends AnyRef
  5. abstract class Source extends Iterator[Char] with Closeable

    An iterable representation of source data.

    An iterable representation of source data. It may be reset with the optional reset method.

    Subclasses must supply the underlying iterator.

    Error handling may be customized by overriding the report method.

    The current input and position, as well as the next character methods delegate to the positioner.

    The default positioner encodes line and column numbers in the position passed to report. This behavior can be changed by supplying a custom positioner.

Value Members

  1. object AnsiColor extends AnsiColor
  2. object Codec extends LowPriorityCodecImplicits
  3. object Source

    This object provides convenience methods to create an iterable representation of a source file.

    This object provides convenience methods to create an iterable representation of a source file.

    Version

    1.0, 19/08/2004

  4. object StdIn extends StdIn

Ungrouped