Packages

p

scala

collection

package collection

Contains the base traits and objects needed to use and extend Scala's collection library.

Guide

A detailed guide for using the collections library is available at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/collections/introduction.html. Developers looking to extend the collections library can find a description of its architecture at http://docs.scala-lang.org/overviews/core/architecture-of-scala-collections.html.

Using Collections

It is convenient to treat all collections as either a scala.collection.Traversable or scala.collection.Iterable, as these traits define the vast majority of operations on a collection.

Collections can, of course, be treated as specifically as needed, and the library is designed to ensure that the methods that transform collections will return a collection of the same type:

scala> val array = Array(1,2,3,4,5,6)
array: Array[Int] = Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

scala> array map { _.toString }
res0: Array[String] = Array(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

scala> val list = List(1,2,3,4,5,6)
list: List[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

scala> list map { _.toString }
res1: List[String] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

Creating Collections

The most common way to create a collection is to use its companion object as a factory. The three most commonly used collections are scala.collection.Seq, scala.collection.immutable.Set, and scala.collection.immutable.Map. They can be used directly as shown below since their companion objects are all available as type aliases in either the scala package or in scala.Predef. New collections are created like this:

scala> val seq = Seq(1,2,3,4,1)
seq: Seq[Int] = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 1)

scala> val set = Set(1,2,3,4,1)
set: scala.collection.immutable.Set[Int] = Set(1, 2, 3, 4)

scala> val map = Map(1 -> "one", 2 -> "two", 3 -> "three", 2 -> "too")
map: scala.collection.immutable.Map[Int,String] = Map(1 -> one, 2 -> too, 3 -> three)

It is also typical to prefer the scala.collection.immutable collections over those in scala.collection.mutable; the types aliased in the scala.Predef object are the immutable versions.

Also note that the collections library was carefully designed to include several implementations of each of the three basic collection types. These implementations have specific performance characteristics which are described in the guide.

The concrete parallel collections also have specific performance characteristics which are described in the parallel collections guide

Converting to and from Java Collections

The scala.collection.JavaConverters object provides a collection of decorators that allow converting between Scala and Java collections using asScala and asJava methods.

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Type Members

  1. abstract class AbstractIterable [+A] extends AbstractTraversable[A] with Iterable[A]

    Explicit instantiation of the Iterable trait to reduce class file size in subclasses.

  2. abstract class AbstractIterator [+A] extends Iterator[A]

    Explicit instantiation of the Iterator trait to reduce class file size in subclasses.

  3. abstract class AbstractMap [K, +V] extends AbstractIterable[(K, V)] with Map[K, V]

    Explicit instantiation of the Map trait to reduce class file size in subclasses.

  4. abstract class AbstractSeq [+A] extends AbstractIterable[A] with Seq[A]

    Explicit instantiation of the Seq trait to reduce class file size in subclasses.

  5. abstract class AbstractSet [A] extends AbstractIterable[A] with Set[A]

    Explicit instantiation of the Set trait to reduce class file size in subclasses.

  6. abstract class AbstractTraversable [+A] extends Traversable[A]

    Explicit instantiation of the Traversable trait to reduce class file size in subclasses.

  7. trait BitSet extends SortedSet[Int] with BitSetLike[BitSet]

    A common base class for mutable and immutable bitsets.

    A common base class for mutable and immutable bitsets.

    Bitsets are sets of non-negative integers which are represented as variable-size arrays of bits packed into 64-bit words. The memory footprint of a bitset is determined by the largest number stored in it.

  8. trait BitSetLike [+This <: BitSetLike[This] with SortedSet[Int]] extends SortedSetLike[Int, This]

    A template trait for bitsets.

    A template trait for bitsets.

    Bitsets are sets of non-negative integers which are represented as variable-size arrays of bits packed into 64-bit words. The memory footprint of a bitset is determined by the largest number stored in it.

    This trait provides most of the operations of a BitSet independently of its representation. It is inherited by all concrete implementations of bitsets.

    This

    the type of the bitset itself.

  9. trait BufferedIterator [+A] extends Iterator[A]

    Buffered iterators are iterators which provide a method head that inspects the next element without discarding it.

    Buffered iterators are iterators which provide a method head that inspects the next element without discarding it.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  10. trait CustomParallelizable [+A, +ParRepr <: Parallel] extends Parallelizable[A, ParRepr]
  11. trait DefaultMap [A, +B] extends Map[A, B]

    A default map which implements the + and - methods of maps.

    A default map which implements the + and - methods of maps.

    Instances that inherit from DefaultMap[A, B] still have to define:

    def get(key: A): Option[B]
    def iterator: Iterator[(A, B)]

    It refers back to the original map.

    It might also be advisable to override foreach or size if efficient implementations can be found.

    Since

    2.8

  12. trait GenIterable [+A] extends GenIterableLike[A, GenIterable[A]] with GenTraversable[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, GenIterable]

    A trait for all iterable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    A trait for all iterable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    Since

    2.9

  13. trait GenIterableLike [+A, +Repr] extends GenTraversableLike[A, Repr]

    A template trait for all iterable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    A template trait for all iterable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    This trait contains abstract methods and methods that can be implemented directly in terms of other methods.

  14. trait GenMap [K, +V] extends GenMapLike[K, V, GenMap[K, V]] with GenIterable[(K, V)]

    A trait for all traversable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    A trait for all traversable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    Since

    2.9

  15. trait GenMapLike [K, +V, +Repr] extends GenIterableLike[(K, V), Repr] with Equals with Parallelizable[(K, V), ParMap[K, V]]

    A trait for all maps upon which operations may be implemented in parallel.

  16. trait GenSeq [+A] extends GenSeqLike[A, GenSeq[A]] with GenIterable[A] with Equals with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, GenSeq]

    A trait for all sequences which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    A trait for all sequences which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    Since

    2.9

  17. trait GenSeqLike [+A, +Repr] extends GenIterableLike[A, Repr] with Equals with Parallelizable[A, ParSeq[A]]

    A template trait for all sequences which may be traversed in parallel.

  18. trait GenSet [A] extends GenSetLike[A, GenSet[A]] with GenIterable[A] with GenericSetTemplate[A, GenSet]

    A trait for sets which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    A trait for sets which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    Since

    2.9

  19. trait GenSetLike [A, +Repr] extends GenIterableLike[A, Repr] with (A) ⇒ Boolean with Equals with Parallelizable[A, ParSet[A]]

    A template trait for sets which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

  20. trait GenTraversable [+A] extends GenTraversableLike[A, GenTraversable[A]] with GenTraversableOnce[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, GenTraversable]

    A trait for all traversable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    A trait for all traversable collections which may possibly have their operations implemented in parallel.

    Since

    2.9

  21. trait GenTraversableLike [+A, +Repr] extends GenTraversableOnce[A] with Parallelizable[A, ParIterable[A]]

    A template trait for all traversable collections upon which operations may be implemented in parallel.

  22. trait GenTraversableOnce [+A] extends Any

    A template trait for all traversable-once objects which may be traversed in parallel.

    A template trait for all traversable-once objects which may be traversed in parallel.

    Methods in this trait are either abstract or can be implemented in terms of other methods.

  23. trait IndexedSeq [+A] extends Seq[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, IndexedSeq] with IndexedSeqLike[A, IndexedSeq[A]]

    A base trait for indexed sequences.

    A base trait for indexed sequences.

    Indexed sequences support constant-time or near constant-time element access and length computation. They are defined in terms of abstract methods apply for indexing and length.

    Indexed sequences do not add any new methods to Seq, but promise efficient implementations of random access patterns.

  24. trait IndexedSeqLike [+A, +Repr] extends SeqLike[A, Repr]

    A template trait for indexed sequences of type IndexedSeq[A].

    A template trait for indexed sequences of type IndexedSeq[A].

    Indexed sequences support constant-time or near constant-time element access and length computation. They are defined in terms of abstract methods apply for indexing and length.

    Indexed sequences do not add any new methods to Seq, but promise efficient implementations of random access patterns.

    This trait just implements iterator in terms of apply and length. However, see IndexedSeqOptimized for an implementation trait that overrides operations to make them run faster under the assumption of fast random access with apply.

  25. trait IndexedSeqOptimized [+A, +Repr] extends IndexedSeqLike[A, Repr]

    A template trait for indexed sequences of type IndexedSeq[A] which optimizes the implementation of several methods under the assumption of fast random access.

    A template trait for indexed sequences of type IndexedSeq[A] which optimizes the implementation of several methods under the assumption of fast random access.

    Indexed sequences support constant-time or near constant-time element access and length computation. They are defined in terms of abstract methods apply for indexing and length.

    Indexed sequences do not add any new methods to Seq, but promise efficient implementations of random access patterns.

  26. trait Iterable [+A] extends Traversable[A] with GenIterable[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, Iterable] with IterableLike[A, Iterable[A]]

    A base trait for iterable collections.

    A base trait for iterable collections.

    This is a base trait for all Scala collections that define an iterator method to step through one-by-one the collection's elements. Implementations of this trait need to provide a concrete method with signature:

    def iterator: Iterator[A]

    They also need to provide a method newBuilder which creates a builder for collections of the same kind.

    This trait implements Iterable's foreach method by stepping through all elements using iterator. Subclasses should re-implement foreach with something more efficient, if possible.

    This trait adds methods iterator, sameElements, takeRight, dropRight to the methods inherited from trait `Traversable`.

    Note: This trait replaces every method that uses break in TraversableLike by an iterator version.

  27. trait IterableLike [+A, +Repr] extends Equals with TraversableLike[A, Repr] with GenIterableLike[A, Repr]

    A template trait for iterable collections of type Iterable[A].

    A template trait for iterable collections of type Iterable[A].

    This is a base trait for all Scala collections that define an iterator method to step through one-by-one the collection's elements. Implementations of this trait need to provide a concrete method with signature:

    def iterator: Iterator[A]

    They also need to provide a method newBuilder which creates a builder for collections of the same kind.

    This trait implements Iterable's foreach method by stepping through all elements using iterator. Subclasses should re-implement foreach with something more efficient, if possible.

    This trait adds methods iterator, sameElements, takeRight, dropRight to the methods inherited from trait `Traversable`.

    Note: This trait replaces every method that uses break in TraversableLike by an iterator version.

  28. trait IterableView [+A, +Coll] extends IterableViewLike[A, Coll, IterableView[A, Coll]]

    A base trait for non-strict views of Iterables.

    A base trait for non-strict views of Iterables.

    A view is a lazy version of some collection. Collection transformers such as map or filter or ++ do not traverse any elements when applied on a view. Instead they create a new view which simply records that fact that the operation needs to be applied. The collection elements are accessed, and the view operations are applied, when a non-view result is needed, or when the force method is called on a view. All views for iterable collections are defined by re-interpreting the iterator method.

  29. trait IterableViewLike [+A, +Coll, +This <: IterableView[A, Coll] with IterableViewLike[A, Coll, This]] extends Iterable[A] with IterableLike[A, This] with TraversableView[A, Coll] with TraversableViewLike[A, Coll, This]

    A template trait for non-strict views of iterable collections.

    A template trait for non-strict views of iterable collections.

    A view is a lazy version of some collection. Collection transformers such as map or filter or ++ do not traverse any elements when applied on a view. Instead they create a new view which simply records that fact that the operation needs to be applied. The collection elements are accessed, and the view operations are applied, when a non-view result is needed, or when the force method is called on a view. All views for iterable collections are defined by re-interpreting the iterator method.

  30. trait Iterator [+A] extends TraversableOnce[A]

    Iterators are data structures that allow to iterate over a sequence of elements.

    Iterators are data structures that allow to iterate over a sequence of elements. They have a hasNext method for checking if there is a next element available, and a next method which returns the next element and advances the iterator.

    An iterator is mutable: most operations on it change its state. While it is often used to iterate through the elements of a collection, it can also be used without being backed by any collection (see constructors on the companion object).

    It is of particular importance to note that, unless stated otherwise, one should never use an iterator after calling a method on it. The two most important exceptions are also the sole abstract methods: next and hasNext.

    Both these methods can be called any number of times without having to discard the iterator. Note that even hasNext may cause mutation -- such as when iterating from an input stream, where it will block until the stream is closed or some input becomes available.

    Consider this example for safe and unsafe use:

    def f[A](it: Iterator[A]) = {
      if (it.hasNext) {            // Safe to reuse "it" after "hasNext"
        it.next                    // Safe to reuse "it" after "next"
        val remainder = it.drop(2) // it is *not* safe to use "it" again after this line!
        remainder.take(2)          // it is *not* safe to use "remainder" after this line!
      } else it
    }
    Version

    2.8

    Since

    1

  31. trait LinearSeq [+A] extends Seq[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, LinearSeq] with LinearSeqLike[A, LinearSeq[A]]

    A base trait for linear sequences.

    A base trait for linear sequences.

    Linear sequences have reasonably efficient head, tail, and isEmpty methods. If these methods provide the fastest way to traverse the collection, a collection Coll that extends this trait should also extend LinearSeqOptimized[A, Coll[A]].

  32. trait LinearSeqLike [+A, +Repr <: LinearSeqLike[A, Repr]] extends SeqLike[A, Repr]

    A template trait for linear sequences of type LinearSeq[A].

    A template trait for linear sequences of type LinearSeq[A].

    This trait just implements iterator and corresponds in terms of isEmpty, head, and tail. However, see LinearSeqOptimized for an implementation trait that overrides many more operations to make them run faster under the assumption of fast linear access with head and tail.

    Linear sequences do not add any new methods to Seq, but promise efficient implementations of linear access patterns.

    A

    the element type of the sequence

    Repr

    the type of the actual sequence containing the elements.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  33. trait LinearSeqOptimized [+A, +Repr <: LinearSeqOptimized[A, Repr]] extends LinearSeqLike[A, Repr]

    A template trait for linear sequences of type LinearSeq[A] which optimizes the implementation of various methods under the assumption of fast linear access.

    A template trait for linear sequences of type LinearSeq[A] which optimizes the implementation of various methods under the assumption of fast linear access.

    Linear-optimized sequences implement most operations in in terms of three methods, which are assumed to have efficient implementations. These are:

    def isEmpty: Boolean
    def head: A
    def tail: Repr

    Here, A is the type of the sequence elements and Repr is the type of the sequence itself. Note that default implementations are provided via inheritance, but these should be overridden for performance.

  34. trait Map [K, +V] extends Iterable[(K, V)] with GenMap[K, V] with MapLike[K, V, Map[K, V]]

    A map from keys of type K to values of type V.

    A map from keys of type K to values of type V.

    Implementation note: This trait provides most of the operations of a Map independently of its representation. It is typically inherited by concrete implementations of maps.

    To implement a concrete map, you need to provide implementations of the following methods:

    def get(key: K): Option[V]
    def iterator: Iterator[(K, V)]
    def + [V1 >: V](kv: (K, V1)): This
    def -(key: K): This

    If you wish that methods like take, drop, filter also return the same kind of map you should also override:

    def empty: This

    It is also good idea to override methods foreach and size for efficiency.

    Note: If you do not have specific implementations for add and - in mind, you might consider inheriting from DefaultMap instead.

    Note: If your additions and mutations return the same kind of map as the map you are defining, you should inherit from MapLike as well.

    K

    the type of the keys in this map.

    V

    the type of the values associated with keys.

    Since

    1.0

  35. trait MapLike [K, +V, +This <: MapLike[K, V, This] with Map[K, V]] extends PartialFunction[K, V] with IterableLike[(K, V), This] with GenMapLike[K, V, This] with Subtractable[K, This] with Parallelizable[(K, V), ParMap[K, V]]

    A template trait for maps, which associate keys with values.

    A template trait for maps, which associate keys with values.

    Implementation note: This trait provides most of the operations of a Map independently of its representation. It is typically inherited by concrete implementations of maps.

    To implement a concrete map, you need to provide implementations of the following methods:

    def get(key: K): Option[V]
    def iterator: Iterator[(K, V)]
    def + [V1 >: V](kv: (K, V1)): This
    def -(key: K): This

    If you wish that methods like take, drop, filter also return the same kind of map you should also override:

    def empty: This

    It is also good idea to override methods foreach and size for efficiency.

    Since

    2.8

  36. trait Parallel extends AnyRef

    A marker trait for collections which have their operations parallelised.

    A marker trait for collections which have their operations parallelised.

    Since

    2.9

  37. trait Parallelizable [+A, +ParRepr <: Parallel] extends Any

    This trait describes collections which can be turned into parallel collections by invoking the method par.

    This trait describes collections which can be turned into parallel collections by invoking the method par. Parallelizable collections may be parameterized with a target type different than their own.

    A

    the type of the elements in the collection

    ParRepr

    the actual type of the collection, which has to be parallel

  38. trait Seq [+A] extends PartialFunction[Int, A] with Iterable[A] with GenSeq[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, Seq] with SeqLike[A, Seq[A]]

    A base trait for sequences.

    A base trait for sequences.

    Sequences are special cases of iterable collections of class Iterable. Unlike iterables, sequences always have a defined order of elements. Sequences provide a method apply for indexing. Indices range from 0 up to the length of a sequence. Sequences support a number of methods to find occurrences of elements or subsequences, including segmentLength, prefixLength, indexWhere, indexOf, lastIndexWhere, lastIndexOf, startsWith, endsWith, indexOfSlice.

    Another way to see a sequence is as a PartialFunction from Int values to the element type of the sequence. The isDefinedAt method of a sequence returns true for the interval from 0 until length.

    Sequences can be accessed in reverse order of their elements, using methods reverse and reverseIterator.

    Sequences have two principal subtraits, IndexedSeq and LinearSeq, which give different guarantees for performance. An IndexedSeq provides fast random-access of elements and a fast length operation. A LinearSeq provides fast access only to the first element via head, but also has a fast tail operation.

  39. trait SeqLike [+A, +Repr] extends IterableLike[A, Repr] with GenSeqLike[A, Repr] with Parallelizable[A, ParSeq[A]]

    A template trait for sequences of type Seq[A]

    A template trait for sequences of type Seq[A]

    Sequences are special cases of iterable collections of class Iterable. Unlike iterables, sequences always have a defined order of elements. Sequences provide a method apply for indexing. Indices range from 0 up to the length of a sequence. Sequences support a number of methods to find occurrences of elements or subsequences, including segmentLength, prefixLength, indexWhere, indexOf, lastIndexWhere, lastIndexOf, startsWith, endsWith, indexOfSlice.

    Another way to see a sequence is as a PartialFunction from Int values to the element type of the sequence. The isDefinedAt method of a sequence returns true for the interval from 0 until length.

    Sequences can be accessed in reverse order of their elements, using methods reverse and reverseIterator.

    Sequences have two principal subtraits, IndexedSeq and LinearSeq, which give different guarantees for performance. An IndexedSeq provides fast random-access of elements and a fast length operation. A LinearSeq provides fast access only to the first element via head, but also has a fast tail operation.

  40. trait SeqView [+A, +Coll] extends SeqViewLike[A, Coll, SeqView[A, Coll]]

    A base trait for non-strict views of sequences.

    A base trait for non-strict views of sequences.

    A view is a lazy version of some collection. Collection transformers such as map or filter or ++ do not traverse any elements when applied on a view. Instead they create a new view which simply records that fact that the operation needs to be applied. The collection elements are accessed, and the view operations are applied, when a non-view result is needed, or when the force method is called on a view. All views for sequences are defined by re-interpreting the length and apply methods.

  41. trait SeqViewLike [+A, +Coll, +This <: SeqView[A, Coll] with SeqViewLike[A, Coll, This]] extends Seq[A] with SeqLike[A, This] with IterableView[A, Coll] with IterableViewLike[A, Coll, This]

    A template trait for non-strict views of sequences.

    A template trait for non-strict views of sequences.

    A view is a lazy version of some collection. Collection transformers such as map or filter or ++ do not traverse any elements when applied on a view. Instead they create a new view which simply records that fact that the operation needs to be applied. The collection elements are accessed, and the view operations are applied, when a non-view result is needed, or when the force method is called on a view. All views for sequences are defined by re-interpreting the length and apply methods.

  42. trait Set [A] extends (A) ⇒ Boolean with Iterable[A] with GenSet[A] with GenericSetTemplate[A, Set] with SetLike[A, Set[A]]

    A base trait for all sets, mutable as well as immutable.

    A base trait for all sets, mutable as well as immutable.

    A set is a collection that contains no duplicate elements.

    To implement a concrete set, you need to provide implementations of the following methods:

    def contains(key: A): Boolean
    def iterator: Iterator[A]
    def +(elem: A): This
    def -(elem: A): This

    If you wish that methods like take, drop, filter return the same kind of set, you should also override:

    def empty: This

    It is also good idea to override methods foreach and size for efficiency.

    Implementation note: If your additions and mutations return the same kind of set as the set you are defining, you should inherit from SetLike as well.

    Since

    1.0

  43. trait SetLike [A, +This <: SetLike[A, This] with Set[A]] extends IterableLike[A, This] with GenSetLike[A, This] with Subtractable[A, This] with Parallelizable[A, ParSet[A]]

    A template trait for sets.

    A template trait for sets.

    A set is a collection that contains no duplicate elements.

    To implement a concrete set, you need to provide implementations of the following methods:

    def contains(key: A): Boolean
    def iterator: Iterator[A]
    def +(elem: A): This
    def -(elem: A): This

    If you wish that methods like take, drop, filter return the same kind of set, you should also override:

    def empty: This

    It is also good idea to override methods foreach and size for efficiency.

    Implementation note: This trait provides most of the operations of a Set independently of its representation. It is typically inherited by concrete implementations of sets.

    Since

    2.8

  44. trait SortedMap [A, +B] extends Map[A, B] with SortedMapLike[A, B, SortedMap[A, B]]

    A map whose keys are sorted.

    A map whose keys are sorted.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.4

  45. trait SortedMapLike [A, +B, +This <: SortedMapLike[A, B, This] with SortedMap[A, B]] extends Sorted[A, This] with MapLike[A, B, This]

    A template for maps whose keys are sorted.

    A template for maps whose keys are sorted. To create a concrete sorted map, you need to implement the rangeImpl method, in addition to those of MapLike.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  46. trait SortedSet [A] extends Set[A] with SortedSetLike[A, SortedSet[A]]

    A sorted set.

    A sorted set.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.4

  47. trait SortedSetLike [A, +This <: SortedSet[A] with SortedSetLike[A, This]] extends Sorted[A, This] with SetLike[A, This]

    A template for sets which are sorted.

    A template for sets which are sorted.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  48. trait Traversable [+A] extends TraversableLike[A, Traversable[A]] with GenTraversable[A] with TraversableOnce[A] with GenericTraversableTemplate[A, Traversable]

    A trait for traversable collections.

    A trait for traversable collections. All operations are guaranteed to be performed in a single-threaded manner.

    This is a base trait of all kinds of Scala collections. It implements the behavior common to all collections, in terms of a method foreach with signature:

    def foreach[U](f: Elem => U): Unit

    Collection classes mixing in this trait provide a concrete foreach method which traverses all the elements contained in the collection, applying a given function to each. They also need to provide a method newBuilder which creates a builder for collections of the same kind.

    A traversable class might or might not have two properties: strictness and orderedness. Neither is represented as a type.

    The instances of a strict collection class have all their elements computed before they can be used as values. By contrast, instances of a non-strict collection class may defer computation of some of their elements until after the instance is available as a value. A typical example of a non-strict collection class is a scala.collection.immutable.Stream. A more general class of examples are TraversableViews.

    If a collection is an instance of an ordered collection class, traversing its elements with foreach will always visit elements in the same order, even for different runs of the program. If the class is not ordered, foreach can visit elements in different orders for different runs (but it will keep the same order in the same run).'

    A typical example of a collection class which is not ordered is a HashMap of objects. The traversal order for hash maps will depend on the hash codes of its elements, and these hash codes might differ from one run to the next. By contrast, a LinkedHashMap is ordered because its foreach method visits elements in the order they were inserted into the HashMap.

  49. trait TraversableLike [+A, +Repr] extends HasNewBuilder[A, Repr] with FilterMonadic[A, Repr] with TraversableOnce[A] with GenTraversableLike[A, Repr] with Parallelizable[A, ParIterable[A]]

    A template trait for traversable collections of type Traversable[A].

    A template trait for traversable collections of type Traversable[A].

    This is a base trait of all kinds of Scala collections. It implements the behavior common to all collections, in terms of a method foreach with signature:

    def foreach[U](f: Elem => U): Unit

    Collection classes mixing in this trait provide a concrete foreach method which traverses all the elements contained in the collection, applying a given function to each. They also need to provide a method newBuilder which creates a builder for collections of the same kind.

    A traversable class might or might not have two properties: strictness and orderedness. Neither is represented as a type.

    The instances of a strict collection class have all their elements computed before they can be used as values. By contrast, instances of a non-strict collection class may defer computation of some of their elements until after the instance is available as a value. A typical example of a non-strict collection class is a scala.collection.immutable.Stream. A more general class of examples are TraversableViews.

    If a collection is an instance of an ordered collection class, traversing its elements with foreach will always visit elements in the same order, even for different runs of the program. If the class is not ordered, foreach can visit elements in different orders for different runs (but it will keep the same order in the same run).'

    A typical example of a collection class which is not ordered is a HashMap of objects. The traversal order for hash maps will depend on the hash codes of its elements, and these hash codes might differ from one run to the next. By contrast, a LinkedHashMap is ordered because its foreach method visits elements in the order they were inserted into the HashMap.

  50. trait TraversableOnce [+A] extends GenTraversableOnce[A]

    A template trait for collections which can be traversed either once only or one or more times.

    A template trait for collections which can be traversed either once only or one or more times.

    This trait exists primarily to eliminate code duplication between Iterator and Traversable, and thus implements some of the common methods that can be implemented solely in terms of foreach without access to a Builder. It also includes a number of abstract methods whose implementations are provided by Iterator, Traversable, etc. It contains implementations common to Iterators and Traversables, such as folds, conversions, and other operations which traverse some or all of the elements and return a derived value. Directly subclassing TraversableOnce is not recommended - instead, consider declaring an Iterator with a next and hasNext method or creating an Iterator with one of the methods on the Iterator object. Consider declaring a subclass of Traversable instead if the elements can be traversed repeatedly.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  51. trait TraversableView [+A, +Coll] extends TraversableViewLike[A, Coll, TraversableView[A, Coll]]

    A base trait for non-strict views of traversable collections.

    A base trait for non-strict views of traversable collections.

    A view is a lazy version of some collection. Collection transformers such as map or filter or ++ do not traverse any elements when applied on a view. Instead they create a new view which simply records that fact that the operation needs to be applied. The collection elements are accessed, and the view operations are applied, when a non-view result is needed, or when the force method is called on a view.

    All views for traversable collections are defined by creating a new foreach method.

  52. trait TraversableViewLike [+A, +Coll, +This <: TraversableView[A, Coll] with TraversableViewLike[A, Coll, This]] extends Traversable[A] with TraversableLike[A, This] with ViewMkString[A]

    A template trait for non-strict views of traversable collections.

    A template trait for non-strict views of traversable collections.

    A view is a lazy version of some collection. Collection transformers such as map or filter or ++ do not traverse any elements when applied on a view. Instead they create a new view which simply records that fact that the operation needs to be applied. The collection elements are accessed, and the view operations are applied, when a non-view result is needed, or when the force method is called on a view.

    All views for traversable collections are defined by creating a new foreach method.

    Implementation note: Methods such as map or flatMap on this view will not invoke the implicitly passed Builder factory, but will return a new view directly, to preserve by-name behavior. The new view is then cast to the factory's result type. This means that every CanBuildFrom that takes a View as its From type parameter must yield the same view (or a generic superclass of it) as its result parameter. If that assumption is broken, cast errors might result.

  53. trait ViewMkString [+A] extends AnyRef
  54. trait IterableProxy [+A] extends Iterable[A] with IterableProxyLike[A, Iterable[A]]

    This trait implements a proxy for iterable objects.

    This trait implements a proxy for iterable objects. It forwards all calls to a different iterable object.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.3) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  55. trait IterableProxyLike [+A, +Repr <: IterableLike[A, Repr] with Iterable[A]] extends IterableLike[A, Repr] with TraversableProxyLike[A, Repr]

    This trait implements a proxy for Iterable objects.

    This trait implements a proxy for Iterable objects. It forwards all calls to a different Iterable object.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.0) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  56. trait MapProxy [A, +B] extends Map[A, B] with MapProxyLike[A, B, Map[A, B]]

    This is a simple wrapper class for scala.collection.Map.

    This is a simple wrapper class for scala.collection.Map. It is most useful for assembling customized map abstractions dynamically using object composition and forwarding.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.3) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    1.0, 21/07/2003

    Since

    1

  57. trait MapProxyLike [A, +B, +This <: MapLike[A, B, This] with Map[A, B]] extends MapLike[A, B, This] with IterableProxyLike[(A, B), This]

    This trait implements a proxy for Map objects.

    This trait implements a proxy for Map objects. It forwards all calls to a different Map object.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.0) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  58. trait SeqProxy [+A] extends Seq[A] with SeqProxyLike[A, Seq[A]]

    This trait implements a proxy for sequence objects.

    This trait implements a proxy for sequence objects. It forwards all calls to a different sequence object.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.0) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  59. trait SeqProxyLike [+A, +Repr <: SeqLike[A, Repr] with Seq[A]] extends SeqLike[A, Repr] with IterableProxyLike[A, Repr]

    This trait implements a proxy for sequences.

    This trait implements a proxy for sequences. It forwards all calls to a different sequence.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.0) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  60. trait SetProxy [A] extends Set[A] with SetProxyLike[A, Set[A]]

    This is a simple wrapper class for scala.collection.Set.

    This is a simple wrapper class for scala.collection.Set. It is most useful for assembling customized set abstractions dynamically using object composition and forwarding.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.3) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.0, 01/01/2007

  61. trait SetProxyLike [A, +This <: SetLike[A, This] with Set[A]] extends SetLike[A, This] with IterableProxyLike[A, This]

    This trait implements a proxy for sets.

    This trait implements a proxy for sets. It forwards all calls to a different set.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.0) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

  62. trait TraversableProxy [+A] extends Traversable[A] with TraversableProxyLike[A, Traversable[A]]

    This trait implements a proxy for traversable objects.

    This trait implements a proxy for traversable objects. It forwards all calls to a different traversable object

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.3) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  63. trait TraversableProxyLike [+A, +Repr <: TraversableLike[A, Repr] with Traversable[A]] extends TraversableLike[A, Repr] with Proxy

    This trait implements a proxy for Traversable objects.

    This trait implements a proxy for Traversable objects. It forwards all calls to a different Traversable object.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.11.0) proxying is deprecated due to lack of use and compiler-level support

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

Value Members

  1. def breakOut[From, T, To](implicit b: CanBuildFrom[Nothing, T, To]): CanBuildFrom[From, T, To]

    Provides a CanBuildFrom instance that builds a specific target collection (To') irrespective of the original collection (From').

  2. object +:

    An extractor used to head/tail deconstruct sequences.

  3. object :+

    An extractor used to init/last deconstruct sequences.

  4. object BitSet extends BitSetFactory[BitSet]

    This object provides a set of operations to create BitSet values.

  5. object BitSetLike

    Companion object for BitSets.

    Companion object for BitSets. Contains private data only

  6. object GenIterable extends GenTraversableFactory[GenIterable]
  7. object GenMap extends GenMapFactory[GenMap]
  8. object GenSeq extends GenTraversableFactory[GenSeq]
  9. object GenSet extends GenTraversableFactory[GenSet]
  10. object GenTraversable extends GenTraversableFactory[GenTraversable]
  11. object IndexedSeq extends IndexedSeqFactory[IndexedSeq]

    This object provides a set of operations to create IndexedSeq values.

    This object provides a set of operations to create IndexedSeq values. The current default implementation of a IndexedSeq is a Vector.

  12. object Iterable extends GenTraversableFactory[Iterable] with TraversableFactory[Iterable]

    This object provides a set of operations to create Iterable values.

    This object provides a set of operations to create Iterable values. The current default implementation of a Iterable is a List.

  13. object IterableView

    An object containing the necessary implicit definitions to make IterableViews work.

    An object containing the necessary implicit definitions to make IterableViews work. Its definitions are generally not accessed directly by clients.

  14. object Iterator

    The Iterator object provides various functions for creating specialized iterators.

    The Iterator object provides various functions for creating specialized iterators.

    Version

    2.8

    Since

    2.8

  15. object JavaConverters extends DecorateAsJava with DecorateAsScala

    A variety of decorators that enable converting between Scala and Java collections using extension methods, asScala and asJava.

    A variety of decorators that enable converting between Scala and Java collections using extension methods, asScala and asJava.

    The extension methods return adapters for the corresponding API.

    The following conversions are supported via asScala and asJava:

    scala.collection.Iterable       <=> java.lang.Iterable
    scala.collection.Iterator       <=> java.util.Iterator
    scala.collection.mutable.Buffer <=> java.util.List
    scala.collection.mutable.Set    <=> java.util.Set
    scala.collection.mutable.Map    <=> java.util.Map
    scala.collection.concurrent.Map <=> java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap

    The following conversions are supported via asScala and through specially-named extension methods to convert to Java collections, as shown:

    scala.collection.Iterable    <=> java.util.Collection   (via asJavaCollection)
    scala.collection.Iterator    <=> java.util.Enumeration  (via asJavaEnumeration)
    scala.collection.mutable.Map <=> java.util.Dictionary   (via asJavaDictionary)

    In addition, the following one-way conversions are provided via asJava:

    scala.collection.Seq         => java.util.List
    scala.collection.mutable.Seq => java.util.List
    scala.collection.Set         => java.util.Set
    scala.collection.Map         => java.util.Map

    The following one way conversion is provided via asScala:

    java.util.Properties => scala.collection.mutable.Map

    In all cases, converting from a source type to a target type and back again will return the original source object. For example:

    import scala.collection.JavaConverters._
    
    val source = new scala.collection.mutable.ListBuffer[Int]
    val target: java.util.List[Int] = source.asJava
    val other: scala.collection.mutable.Buffer[Int] = target.asScala
    assert(source eq other)

    Alternatively, the conversion methods have descriptive names and can be invoked explicitly.

    scala> val vs = java.util.Arrays.asList("hi", "bye")
    vs: java.util.List[String] = [hi, bye]
    
    scala> val ss = asScalaIterator(vs.iterator)
    ss: Iterator[String] = non-empty iterator
    
    scala> .toList
    res0: List[String] = List(hi, bye)
    
    scala> val ss = asScalaBuffer(vs)
    ss: scala.collection.mutable.Buffer[String] = Buffer(hi, bye)
    Since

    2.8.1

  16. object LinearSeq extends SeqFactory[LinearSeq]

    This object provides a set of operations to create LinearSeq values.

    This object provides a set of operations to create LinearSeq values. The current default implementation of a LinearSeq is a List.

  17. object Map extends MapFactory[Map]

    This object provides a set of operations needed to create Map values.

  18. object Searching

    A collection of wrappers that provide sequence classes with search functionality.

    A collection of wrappers that provide sequence classes with search functionality.

    Example usage:

    import scala.collection.Searching._
    val l = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
    l.search(3)
    // == Found(2)
  19. object Seq extends SeqFactory[Seq]

    This object provides a set of operations to create Seq values.

    This object provides a set of operations to create Seq values. The current default implementation of a Seq is a List.

  20. object SeqLike

    The companion object for trait SeqLike.

  21. object SeqView

    An object containing the necessary implicit definitions to make SeqViews work.

    An object containing the necessary implicit definitions to make SeqViews work. Its definitions are generally not accessed directly by clients.

  22. object Set extends SetFactory[Set]

    This object provides a set of operations needed to create Set values.

    This object provides a set of operations needed to create Set values. The current default implementation of a Set is one of EmptySet, Set1, Set2, Set3, Set4 in class immutable.Set for sets of sizes up to 4, and a immutable.HashSet for sets of larger sizes.

  23. object SortedMap extends SortedMapFactory[SortedMap]

    Since

    2.8

  24. object SortedSet extends SortedSetFactory[SortedSet]

    Since

    2.8

  25. object Traversable extends GenTraversableFactory[Traversable] with TraversableFactory[Traversable]

    This object provides a set of operations to create Traversable values.

    This object provides a set of operations to create Traversable values. The current default implementation of a Traversable is a List.

  26. object TraversableOnce
  27. object TraversableView

    An object containing the necessary implicit definitions to make TraversableViews work.

    An object containing the necessary implicit definitions to make TraversableViews work. Its definitions are generally not accessed directly by clients.

Deprecated Value Members

  1. object JavaConversions extends WrapAsScala with WrapAsJava

    A variety of implicit conversions supporting interoperability between Scala and Java collections.

    A variety of implicit conversions supporting interoperability between Scala and Java collections.

    The following conversions are supported:

    scala.collection.Iterable       <=> java.lang.Iterable
    scala.collection.Iterable       <=> java.util.Collection
    scala.collection.Iterator       <=> java.util.{ Iterator, Enumeration }
    scala.collection.mutable.Buffer <=> java.util.List
    scala.collection.mutable.Set    <=> java.util.Set
    scala.collection.mutable.Map    <=> java.util.{ Map, Dictionary }
    scala.collection.concurrent.Map <=> java.util.concurrent.ConcurrentMap

    In all cases, converting from a source type to a target type and back again will return the original source object:

    import scala.collection.JavaConversions._
    
    val sl = new scala.collection.mutable.ListBuffer[Int]
    val jl : java.util.List[Int] = sl
    val sl2 : scala.collection.mutable.Buffer[Int] = jl
    assert(sl eq sl2)

    In addition, the following one way conversions are provided:

    scala.collection.Seq         => java.util.List
    scala.collection.mutable.Seq => java.util.List
    scala.collection.Set         => java.util.Set
    scala.collection.Map         => java.util.Map
    java.util.Properties         => scala.collection.mutable.Map[String, String]

    The transparent conversions provided here are considered fragile because they can result in unexpected behavior and performance.

    Therefore, this API has been deprecated and JavaConverters should be used instead. JavaConverters provides the same conversions, but through extension methods.

    Annotations
    @deprecated
    Deprecated

    (Since version 2.12.0) use JavaConverters

    Since

    2.8

Inherited from AnyRef

Inherited from Any

Ungrouped