Edit this page on GitHub

Context Functions

Context functions are functions with (only) context parameters. Their types are context function types. Here is an example of a context function type:

type Executable[T] = ExecutionContext ?=> T

Context functions are written using ?=> as the "arrow" sign. They are applied to synthesized arguments, in the same way methods with context parameters are applied. For instance:

given ec: ExecutionContext = ...

  def f(x: Int): ExecutionContext ?=> Int = ...

  // could be written as follows with the type alias from above
  // def f(x: Int): Executable[Int] = ...

  f(2)(using ec)   // explicit argument
  f(2)             // argument is inferred

Conversely, if the expected type of an expression E is a context function type (T_1, ..., T_n) ?=> U and E is not already an context function literal, E is converted to a context function literal by rewriting it to

(x_1: T1, ..., x_n: Tn) ?=> E

where the names x_1, ..., x_n are arbitrary. This expansion is performed before the expression E is typechecked, which means that x_1, ..., x_n are available as givens in E.

Like their types, context function literals are written using ?=> as the arrow between parameters and results. They differ from normal function literals in that their types are context function types.

For example, continuing with the previous definitions,

def g(arg: Executable[Int]) = ...

  g(22)      // is expanded to g((ev: ExecutionContext) ?=> 22)

  g(f(2))    // is expanded to g((ev: ExecutionContext) ?=> f(2)(using ev))

  g((ctx: ExecutionContext) ?=> f(3))  // is expanded to g((ctx: ExecutionContext) ?=> f(3)(using ctx))
  g((ctx: ExecutionContext) ?=> f(3)(using ctx)) // is left as it is

Example: Builder Pattern

Context function types have considerable expressive power. For instance, here is how they can support the "builder pattern", where the aim is to construct tables like this:

table {
    row {
      cell("top left")
      cell("top right")
    row {
      cell("bottom left")
      cell("bottom right")

The idea is to define classes for Table and Row that allow the addition of elements via add:

class Table:
    val rows = new ArrayBuffer[Row]
    def add(r: Row): Unit = rows += r
    override def toString = rows.mkString("Table(", ", ", ")")

  class Row:
    val cells = new ArrayBuffer[Cell]
    def add(c: Cell): Unit = cells += c
    override def toString = cells.mkString("Row(", ", ", ")")

  case class Cell(elem: String)

Then, the table, row and cell constructor methods can be defined with context function types as parameters to avoid the plumbing boilerplate that would otherwise be necessary.

def table(init: Table ?=> Unit) =
    given t: Table = Table()

  def row(init: Row ?=> Unit)(using t: Table) =
     given r: Row = Row()

  def cell(str: String)(using r: Row) =
     r.add(new Cell(str))

With that setup, the table construction code above compiles and expands to:

table { ($t: Table) ?=>

    row { ($r: Row) ?=>
      cell("top left")(using $r)
      cell("top right")(using $r)
    }(using $t)

    row { ($r: Row) ?=>
      cell("bottom left")(using $r)
      cell("bottom right")(using $r)
    }(using $t)

Example: Postconditions

As a larger example, here is a way to define constructs for checking arbitrary postconditions using an extension method ensuring so that the checked result can be referred to simply by result. The example combines opaque type aliases, context function types, and extension methods to provide a zero-overhead abstraction.

object PostConditions:
  opaque type WrappedResult[T] = T

  def result[T](using r: WrappedResult[T]): T = r

  extension [T](x: T)
    def ensuring(condition: WrappedResult[T] ?=> Boolean): T =
      assert(condition(using x))
end PostConditions
import PostConditions.{ensuring, result}

val s = List(1, 2, 3).sum.ensuring(result == 6)

Explanations: We use a context function type WrappedResult[T] ?=> Boolean as the type of the condition of ensuring. An argument to ensuring such as (result == 6) will therefore have a given of type WrappedResult[T] in scope to pass along to the result method. WrappedResult is a fresh type, to make sure that we do not get unwanted givens in scope (this is good practice in all cases where context parameters are involved). Since WrappedResult is an opaque type alias, its values need not be boxed, and since ensuring is added as an extension method, its argument does not need boxing either. Hence, the implementation of ensuring is close in efficiency to the best possible code one could write by hand:

val s =
  val result = List(1, 2, 3).sum
  assert(result == 6)


For more information, see the blog article, (which uses a different syntax that has been superseded).

More details