scala

trait Stream

[source: scala/Stream.scala]

trait Stream[+A]
extends Projection[A]

The class Stream implements lazy lists where elements are only evaluated when they are needed. Here is an example:

 object Main extends Application {

   def from(n: Int): Stream[Int] =
     Stream.cons(n, from(n + 1))

   def sieve(s: Stream[Int]): Stream[Int] =
     Stream.cons(s.head, sieve(s.tail filter { _ % s.head != 0 }))

   def primes = sieve(from(2))

   primes take 10 print
 }
 
Author
Martin Odersky, Matthias Zenger
Version
1.1 08/08/03
Direct Known Subclasses:
Stream.Definite

Method Summary
protected abstract def addDefinedElems (buf : StringBuilder, prefix : java.lang.String) : StringBuilder
Write all elements of this string into given string builder
override def append [B >: A](rest : => Iterable[B]) : Stream[B]
The stream resulting from the concatenation of this stream with the argument stream.
override def apply (n : Int) : A
Returns the n-th element of this stream. The first element (head of the stream) is at position 0.
override def copyToArray [B >: A](xs : Array[B], start : Int) : Unit
Fills the given array xs with the elements of this stream starting at position start.
override def drop (n : Int) : Stream[A]
Returns the stream without its n first elements. If the stream has less than n elements, the empty stream is returned.
override def dropWhile (p : (A) => Boolean) : Stream[A]
Returns the longest suffix of this stream whose first element does not satisfy the predicate p.
override def elements : Iterator[A]
An iterator returning the elements of this stream one by one.
override def exists (p : (A) => Boolean) : Boolean
Tests the existence in this stream of an element that satisfies the predicate p.
override def filter (p : (A) => Boolean) : Stream[A]
Returns all the elements of this stream that satisfy the predicate p. The order of the elements is preserved.
override def flatMap [B](f : (A) => Iterable[B]) : Stream[B]
Applies the given function f to each element of this stream, then concatenates the results.
override def foldLeft [B](z : B)(f : (B, A) => B) : B
Combines the elements of this stream together using the binary function f, from left to right, and starting with the value z.
override def foldRight [B](z : B)(f : (A, B) => B) : B
Combines the elements of this stream together using the binary function f, from rigth to left, and starting with the value z.
override def forall (p : (A) => Boolean) : Boolean
Tests if the predicate p is satisfied by all elements in this stream.
override def force : List[A]
convert to a copied strict collection
override def foreach (f : (A) => Unit) : Unit
Apply the given function f to each element of this stream (while respecting the order of the elements).
override def hasDefiniteSize : Boolean
returns true iff this collection has a bound size. Many APIs in this trait will not work on collections of unbound sizes.
abstract def head : A
The first element of this stream
def init : Stream[A]
The stream without its last element.
override abstract def isEmpty : Boolean
is this stream empty?
override def last : A
Returns the last element of this stream.
override def length : Int
The length of this stream
override def lengthCompare (l : Int) : Int
returns length - l without calling length
override def map [B](f : (A) => B) : Stream[B]
Returns the stream resulting from applying the given function f to each element of this stream.
def print : Unit
Prints elements of this stream one by one, separated by commas
def print (sep : java.lang.String) : Unit
Prints elements of this stream one by one, separated by sep
override def reverse : Stream[A]
A stream consisting of all elements of this stream in reverse order.
abstract def tail : Stream[A]
A stream consisting of the remaining elements of this stream after the first one.
override def take (n : Int) : Stream[A]
Returns the n first elements of this stream, or else the whole stream, if it has less than n elements.
override def takeWhile (p : (A) => Boolean) : Stream[A]
Returns the longest prefix of this stream whose elements satisfy the predicate p.
override def toStream : Stream[A]
Create a stream which contains all the elements of this iterable object.
override def toString : java.lang.String
Converts stream to string
def zip [B](that : Stream[B]) : Stream[(A, B)]
Returns a stream formed from this stream and the specified stream that by associating each element of the former with the element at the same position in the latter. If one of the two streams is longer than the other, its remaining elements are ignored.
def zipWithIndex : Stream[(A, Int)]
Returns a stream that pairs each element of this stream with its index, counting from 0.
Methods inherited from Projection
projection
Methods inherited from Seq
size, concat, lastOption, headOption, ++, isDefinedAt, lastIndexOf, slice, contains, subseq, toArray, equalsWith, startsWith, endsWith, indexOf, containsSlice
Methods inherited from Collection
stringPrefix
Methods inherited from Iterable
partition, find, findIndexOf, indexOf, /:, :\, reduceLeft, reduceRight, copyToBuffer, sameElements, toList, mkString, mkString, mkString, addString, addString
Methods inherited from PartialFunction
orElse, andThen
Methods inherited from Function1
compose
Methods inherited from AnyRef
getClass, hashCode, equals, clone, notify, notifyAll, wait, wait, wait, finalize, ==, !=, eq, ne, synchronized
Methods inherited from Any
==, !=, isInstanceOf, asInstanceOf
Method Details
override abstract def isEmpty : Boolean
is this stream empty?

override def force : List[A]
convert to a copied strict collection
Overrides
Projection.force

abstract def head : A
The first element of this stream
Throws
Predef.NoSuchElementException - if the stream is empty.

abstract def tail : Stream[A]
A stream consisting of the remaining elements of this stream after the first one.
Throws
Predef.UnsupportedOperationException - if the stream is empty.

override def length : Int
The length of this stream

override def lengthCompare(l : Int) : Int
returns length - l without calling length

override def hasDefiniteSize : Boolean
returns true iff this collection has a bound size. Many APIs in this trait will not work on collections of unbound sizes.

override def append[B >: A](rest : => Iterable[B]) : Stream[B]
The stream resulting from the concatenation of this stream with the argument stream.
Parameters
rest - The stream that gets appended to this stream
Overrides
Projection.append

override def elements : Iterator[A]
An iterator returning the elements of this stream one by one.

def init : Stream[A]
The stream without its last element.
Throws
Predef.UnsupportedOperationException - if the stream is empty.

override def last : A
Returns the last element of this stream.
Returns
the last element of the stream.
Throws
Predef.NoSuchElementException - if the stream is empty.

override def apply(n : Int) : A
Returns the n-th element of this stream. The first element (head of the stream) is at position 0.
Parameters
n - index of the element to return
Returns
the element at position n in this stream.
Throws
Predef.NoSuchElementException - if the stream is too short.

override def take(n : Int) : Stream[A]
Returns the n first elements of this stream, or else the whole stream, if it has less than n elements.
Parameters
n - the number of elements to take.
Returns
the n first elements of this stream.

override def drop(n : Int) : Stream[A]
Returns the stream without its n first elements. If the stream has less than n elements, the empty stream is returned.
Parameters
n - the number of elements to drop.
Returns
the stream without its n first elements.

override def takeWhile(p : (A) => Boolean) : Stream[A]
Returns the longest prefix of this stream whose elements satisfy the predicate p.
Parameters
p - the test predicate.
Returns
the longest prefix of this stream whose elements satisfy the predicate p.
Overrides
Projection.takeWhile

override def dropWhile(p : (A) => Boolean) : Stream[A]
Returns the longest suffix of this stream whose first element does not satisfy the predicate p.
Parameters
p - the test predicate.
Returns
the longest suffix of the stream whose first element does not satisfy the predicate p.

override def map[B](f : (A) => B) : Stream[B]
Returns the stream resulting from applying the given function f to each element of this stream.
Parameters
f - function to apply to each element.
Returns
[f(a0), ..., f(an)] if this stream is [a0, ..., an].
Overrides
Projection.map

override def foreach(f : (A) => Unit) : Unit
Apply the given function f to each element of this stream (while respecting the order of the elements).
Parameters
f - the treatment to apply to each element.

override def filter(p : (A) => Boolean) : Stream[A]
Returns all the elements of this stream that satisfy the predicate p. The order of the elements is preserved.
Parameters
p - the predicate used to filter the stream.
Returns
the elements of this stream satisfying p.
Overrides
Projection.filter

override def forall(p : (A) => Boolean) : Boolean
Tests if the predicate p is satisfied by all elements in this stream.
Parameters
p - the test predicate.
Returns
true iff all elements of this stream satisfy the predicate p.

override def exists(p : (A) => Boolean) : Boolean
Tests the existence in this stream of an element that satisfies the predicate p.
Parameters
p - the test predicate.
Returns
true iff there exists an element in this stream that satisfies the predicate p.

override def foldLeft[B](z : B)(f : (B, A) => B) : B
Combines the elements of this stream together using the binary function f, from left to right, and starting with the value z.
Returns
f(... (f(f(z, a0), a1) ...), an) if the stream is [a0, a1, ..., an].

override def foldRight[B](z : B)(f : (A, B) => B) : B
Combines the elements of this stream together using the binary function f, from rigth to left, and starting with the value z.
Returns
f(a0, f(a1, f(..., f(an, z)...))) if the stream is [a0, a1, ..., an].

override def flatMap[B](f : (A) => Iterable[B]) : Stream[B]
Applies the given function f to each element of this stream, then concatenates the results.
Parameters
f - the function to apply on each element.
Returns
f(a0) ::: ... ::: f(an) if this stream is [a0, ..., an].
Overrides
Projection.flatMap

override def toStream : Stream[A]
Create a stream which contains all the elements of this iterable object.
Notes
consider using projection for lazy behavior.

override def reverse : Stream[A]
A stream consisting of all elements of this stream in reverse order.

override def copyToArray[B >: A](xs : Array[B], start : Int) : Unit
Fills the given array xs with the elements of this stream starting at position start.
Parameters
xs - the array to fill.
start - starting index.
Precondition
the array must be large enough to hold all elements.

def zip[B](that : Stream[B]) : Stream[(A, B)]
Returns a stream formed from this stream and the specified stream that by associating each element of the former with the element at the same position in the latter. If one of the two streams is longer than the other, its remaining elements are ignored.
Returns
Stream({a0,b0}, ..., {amin(m,n),bmin(m,n))} when Stream(a0, ..., am) zip Stream(b0, ..., bn) is invoked.

def zipWithIndex : Stream[(A, Int)]
Returns a stream that pairs each element of this stream with its index, counting from 0.
Returns
the stream Stream({a0,0}, {a0,1},...) where ai are the elements of this stream.

def print : Unit
Prints elements of this stream one by one, separated by commas

def print(sep : java.lang.String) : Unit
Prints elements of this stream one by one, separated by sep
Parameters
sep - The separator string printed between consecutive elements.

override def toString : java.lang.String
Converts stream to string

protected abstract def addDefinedElems(buf : StringBuilder, prefix : java.lang.String) : StringBuilder
Write all elements of this string into given string builder